10' Infection and Immunology

Discussion in 'سنة ثانية' started by BloodFilm, ‏2/8/13.

  1. BloodFilm


    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    Infection and Immunology!

    Hello and greetings to you all. Before I begin, I'd like to tell everyone, who is finally done from Foundation Block II, congratulations, and give a warm welcome to the enthusiastic people, who are reading this ahead of time. Before I continue, please be aware that what I am about to share with you is only my information about this module as of 2011-2012 intake, considering that the HSC is coming up with lethal changes every year!

    Infection and Immunology (Not immunity!) Is the first module that you happen to come across. Second year of Medicine is the first year in your pre-clinical life. The second course (Approximately) is comprised of a dense block, and this module, hence Foundation Block II and Infection and Immunology module. At this point, you should be familiar with what is a PBL and a clinical encounter, because once you are taking this system, you should have been exposed to PBL sessions and a clinical encounter at the MDLs. This will continue in this module, but you will be exposed to a new methodology of questions in the exam, the EMQ. EMQs is an abbreviation to the word "Extended Multiple Questions" I will give you an example later. You will go to MDLs and examine simulated patients, but you will only have hospital visits once you are in third year. You have previously been exposed to Microbiology and know well what this dense subject is about. This module also have microbiology to a larger extent than the FBII microbiology, but there are some additions to this module over FBII in terms of subjects IN Microbiology as well as other new subjects that you will be exposed to for the first time. From that, you have the privilege to call this system an advanced continuation of FBII. You will receive a schedule with the subjects scheduled, but with no topics. ya3ni "Microbiology: " left empty. This schedule is only to know what and where to attend. This schedule will also have no Learning Topics, but that doesn't mean you won't have any. Every week, you will receive a booklet that will tell you the week's schedule with the topics to each subject. You will find your learning topics in it, and it also gives you the Weekly learning objectives as well as the objectives and the lecture contributors. It will also give you the week's clinical examination objectives and explanations.

    The trunk of this module is Microbiology. Repeated, you will come across pieces of information that was already discussed and explained to you during your intake of FBII. This Microbiology in this module will also be in the form of Immunology. You were previously exposed to this subject back in year 1 about blood transfusions and plasma antigens in biology. That subject is known as Immunohematology, but in this course, you will take raw Immunology from the scratch.

    This module is comprised of approximately 40 Microbiology lectures. There are 2 lectures on Pathology, Anatomy, and Ethics/professionalism. There are 3 Pharmacology lectures, 1 Epidemiology and 1 Radiology. This also means that there are 40 lectures during which you have to fill the sheet with your name. It's hard at this point to have someone signing for you. The module is also comprised of 5 more Microbiology seminars. There is also a lab on Anatomy and another on Microbiology. Approaching you from the attendance part; for your clinical encounters, every Thursday, you will be divided into 2 groups, and you will only alternate your attendance on a Thursday for the next Thursday with the other group. ya3ni be5te9ar 1 thursday you attend, the next you dont and the third you do. :)


    As usual, Microbiology will involve bacteriology, mycology and virology, but additionally, it will also involve Immunology where you will study about cellular interactions, a very huge family of cytokines, which you have been previously exposed to in pathology lectures of FBII, such as chemokines, interleukins, leukotrienes etc. Immunology takes around 15 lectures of the 40. There are 2 very famous, smart doctors that will discuss the Immunology part. Dr. Raj and Dr. Rajaa. You will pretty much love Immunology very much and will feel euphoric when you first take this beautiful subject, but the questions, especially, by those 2 doctors can be tricky sometimes. :(

    For people who are interested about the content itself, please read. If you're not interested, please go to the next paragraph. The 2 doctors will discuss with you cellular interactions during hypersensitivity and allergy reactions, viral and bacterial defence mechanism and the elimination of the infections. Cellular defence mechanisms and the role and functions of the granulocytes as well as lymphocytes. Innate immunity (Complement, macrophages and inflammation are examples, ya3ni non-specific) and acquired immunity (involves lymphocytes, fe memory cells, ya3ni specific) are discussed and their divisions. Cellular cytotoxicity and cell killing by K and NK cells as well as Cytotoxic lymphocytes are also discussed and explained etc.

    Microbiology (bacteriology, virology and mycology):-

    I will begin with the Mycology because I really hated it. :) In the few older batches, they found that the Mycology in FBII was hard and a little bit too much for only 2 lectures, so they decided to really neglect them and they were surprised that the FBII exam was full of fungi. In this module, they ask even more about mycology. If I remember correctly, there were more than 10 questions on the 2-3 lectures of Mycology in this module given by Dr. Z. Khan. The content to an extent is repetitions from the FBII Mycology, but it still has new information that are most of the times the ones you are asked about.

    You will study about bacteria, fungi and viruses in general, but the difference is that in the FBII, questions on treatment were not involved and there were only minor questions about case scenarios. This Microbiology involves the treatment, which is why the microbiology now requires you to memorize a lot more. For instance, there are the 2 infamous microbiology lectures that you get within your first days of the module. They're Antimicrobials I and II. Those 2 lectures alone have over 20 drugs to memorize. I don't want to scare you or pin so much load to your back, but questions can occur as follows:

    A 21 year old male, who is sexually active, recently developed a scanty to white urethral discharge. The discharge was N. Gonorrhea negative. Which of the following treatments is effective?
    A) Erythromycin
    B) Amoxicillin
    C) Ampicillin
    D) Piperacillin

    The answer is Erythromycin because all other drugs are Penicillin-derived. Since this guy had a Chlamydial infection (which lack cell wall), Penicillin is useless in this case.

    Every year, they ask a lot of questions with regards to those 2 notes. So now, some the microbiology lectures will require you to memorize drugs; some lectures will require you to know the pharmacology (So the mechanism) of the drug as well. Since this isn't Pharmacology, you could be studying the mechanism of how the bacteria develop resistance against a particular drug.

    Lastly, this type of Microbiology also have some lectures about Health Care Provider safety and vaccination systems in Kuwait. Be happy, those lectures are very easy. Questions most likely come in 2 forms. Coming at you with examples.

    A 71 year old developed chest pain and shortness of breath in winter. Upon reaching the hospital, he died from suffocation. What is the type of vaccine that might have saved this man's life if it was given before winter?
    A) Polysaccharide
    B) Toxoid
    C) Inactivated
    D) Live-Attenuated

    The answer is Polysaccharide. From your Microbiology lectures, you should be able to know that this person has caught a Pneumonia. You will also study somewhere in this Microbiology that Streptococcus Pneumonia affects elderly often. You will also study somewhere that the type of vaccine for this infection is polysaccharide.

    You will also study a lot of Bacteriology and Virology about Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Intra-uterine infections, Zoonosis and animal-acquired infections, plague, yellow fever, Q fever and the list goes on.

    The Pathology, Pharmacology and Anatomy are really only regular lectures that you attend and understand. For the Pharmacology, at my time, they were given by Dr. Suleiman Al-Sabah and a question that came my year, and probably 3 years before I do my exam is about Influenza treatment; the drug Amantadine. The pathology lectures are fairly easy and are given by Prof. Junaid, who is a very awesome doctor with fair questions in the exam. If you focus with you and pay enough attention, you will in sha allah get all his questions right. For the Anatomy, 1 lecture was given by Dr. Alyaa, and the second by Dr. Khalid Khan.


    Radiology is a lecture that talks about imaging modalities, scanning techniques and their usage. Most of the Radiology lectures are but a spam of slides with x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans and others. Most of the lecture is filled with pictures with very minute amount of words. Radiology lectures are FILLED with clinical information, which, at this stage, is far beyond. The doctor talks a lot. You don't feel good. You get out of the lecture and think you are missing a lot. No problem. It happens to the best of us. Radiology is a very advanced subject to be given to second. Some people really choose to take notes of everything the doctor says. It's a way, but there are better solutions. Everyone, I will tell you MY solution, which I did and it seemed to help. All I did is, I sat in the lecture theatre and just listened to the doctor.. I ignored any clinical information that was too hard to catch at the time, but listened to any theoretical information. I'll give you an example, but in third year MSK system. The doctors were telling us repeatedly that MRI is used for soft skin tissue scanning, and CT scan is used to identify fractures. This little piece of information was repeated MORE THAN TEN times in the same lecture. The next lecture, the doctor kept on saying it. In the exam, we had a few radiology questions asking us about a person who was playing and had a tendon tear, which best modality can be used? MRI.
    A post-menopausal woman osteoporosis fell on her back and developed pain, what is the best scanning modality? CT. It was as simple as that, but the lectures at that time were filled with information that I could spend 3 years and still not quietly understand everything. Take it easy, relax, and pay attention to what doctors say during the lecture is your best solution. You only get a question on Radiology in your exam. 2 if maximum.

    Side notes:

    Now you might think, I had Anatomy lab sessions and other labs in other subjects, will I have an OSPE exam on them? No you will not have an OSPE on anything related to Infection and Immunology, and for the final, you will not have an OSPE on the previous Anatomy labs that you did in Foundation Block I. The final is only theory. No OSPE, no OSCE.

    Please be aware that this is a module, meaning that the exam will start immediately once the module has finished. There are no breaks as you are used to in FBI and II. People leave things pile up and only start once the break has started. This is totally not applicable to any of the systems. Please plan your studies ahead of time and organize your thoughts. latge6on wala shay. A note you might not study for the sake of time might cost you a lot.

    Usually, any module or system has only 1 paper in exam. Usually, this module is 100 Questions that is taken in 1 paper. 60 MCQ and 40 EMQ. You will have 2 scan tron sheets, so you have to fill your name and ID twice. One, that you are familiar with by now, has questions in columns with A B C D E, and the other one has the questions only in horizontal lines. Those questions will have answers "A-Z" and those are the answers for the EMQs.

    An example of an EMQ as I promised you.

    A. SDHI
    B. Physiology
    C. Biochemistry
    D. Anatomy
    E. Microbiology
    F. Pharmacology.
    G. Pathology
    H. Psychology

    What is the most frustrating subject? The answer is A.

    Yes, there will be A-H (8) choices, and yes they will precede the questions.

    At my time, there were 3 learning topics. 1 in Psychology, and 2 in Immunology.

    I really hope I have helped you and motivated you and not have truncated your hopes. Please be aware that this is only my experience in my intake of 2011-2012. Thank you so much for reading and Allah bless you all.

    Please reply if you have any questions or if I missed something that you're wondering about, and I'll do my best to answer it as long as its in my field of knowledge.


    The End!
    Last edited: ‏4/8/13

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